Insecure, Low-Paying Jobs Can Become Good Jobs, If Cities Step Up
Why Cities Must Take the Lead on Upgrading Service Jobs
Millions of U.S. workers hold insecure jobs that don’t pay enough to support a family. That needs to change, and cities can lead the way.
Wages by Job Class
|Annual Wage||Wages Left After Paying for Housing|
Service-class workers have a meager $22,715 left over after paying for their housing, compared to nearly $40,000 for all workers and almost $70,000 for knowledge, professional, and creative workers. Indeed, when housing costs are subtracted, knowledge, creative, and professional workers have triple the amount of money left over compared to service workers. (My colleague at the University of Toronto, Karen King, crunched these numbers based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment Statistics for 2017. The data cover large metropolitan areas with more than 1 million people.)
Service jobs are overwhelmingly concentrated in America’s large metro areas. The 50 largest metros have well over half of all service-class workers; the top 20 are home to more than a quarter, and the top 10 nearly a fifth.
Metros With Most Service-Class Jobs
|New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA||4,744,850|
|Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA||3,027,720|
|Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX||1,704,880|
|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL||1,403,110|
|Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX||1,372,750|
|Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA||1,212,170|
|San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA||1,082,790|
Service-class jobs comprise well over the half the workforce in quite a few large metros. They make up more than 60 percent of employment in Las Vegas; roughly 55 percent in Orlando and Miami; and more than 50 percent in New York.
Large Metros With Highest Share of Service-Class Jobs
|Metro||Service-Class Share of Total Employment|
|Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV||60.8%|
|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL||54.8%|
|San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX||53.5%|
|Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL||52.5%|
|Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY||51.5%|
|New Orleans-Metairie, LA||51.2%|
|New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA||51%|
There is considerable variation in service-class wages across metros. Service workers take home considerably less that the national average in New Orleans, Orlando, Tucson, and the large metros listed in the table below. This compares to a high of more than $40,000 in metros such as San Jose, San Francisco, New York, Seattle, and Washington, D.C.
Large Metros Where Service-Class Workers Have the Least Left Over
|Metro||Wages Left Over After Housing|
|Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC||$17,559|
|San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA||$17,647|
|San Diego-Carlsbad, CA||$17,723|
|New Orleans-Metairie, LA||$18,075|
|Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA||$18,991|
|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL||$19,511|
|Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA||$19,626|
|Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV||$19,982|
Large Metros Where Service-Class Workers Have the Most Left Over
|Metro||Wages Left Over After Housing|
|Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY||$25,012|
|Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI||$23,962|
|Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI||$23,321|
|New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA||$23,316|
More than 90 percent of service workers are currently trapped in dead-end jobs with little possibility of upgrading them. But these jobs can be upgraded. In fact, we’ve done it before with manufacturing jobs. During the New Deal and after, the private and public sectors forged a new compact to turn low-paying and insecure manufacturing jobs into high-paying, family-supporting ones that formed the backbone of the American Dream.
Of course, there is little likelihood of such a partnership between the federal government and the private sector happening today, with Trump in the White House and the Republicans in control of both houses of Congress. The Trump administration has already pushed for and enacted policies that undermine workers.
The push in many cities for higher minimum wages is a good first step, but it is not enough. Just as cities stepped up on climate change and on immigration, it is time for them to do so on the crucial issue of good jobs.
There is much that cities can do to set such a change in motion. It’s not like service work is inevitably condemned to being bad. In Europe, for example, service-class work is much better-paying and higher-quality. A growing body of research shows that paying higher wages to service workers can result in increased productivity and profits for retail and service firms. Firms like Costco, Trader Joes, and Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts take the same approach as world-class manufacturing firms, paying their workers more, involving them more fully in quality and innovation efforts, and incentivizing them to provide better customer service.
About the Author
Richard Florida is a co-founder and editor at large of CityLab and a senior editor at The Atlantic. He is a university professor in the University of Toronto’s School of Cities and Rotman School of Management, and a distinguished fellow at New York University’s Schack Institute of Real Estate.
Publish,A Weekly Newslettervia CityLabSeptember 4, 2018 at 06:34PM https://ift.tt/2oGUswZ